A primary source is material that provides firsthand evidence of a historic topic or event. They are created by an actual witness or one who experienced the event that was recorded.
A secondary source is material that interprets or comments on a historical event after it has passed.
|Topic||Primary Source||Secondary Source|
|Student life at Barnard College||
Alma Mater: design and experience in the women's colleges from their nineteenth-century beginnings to the 1930s by Helen Lefkowitz Horowitz
|Founding of Barnard College||
Personal Papers and Collections Of Annie Nathan Meyer
Barnard Beginnings by Annie Nathan Meyer
Annie Nathan Meyer: Barnard godmother and Gotham gadfly by Myra Gallant Goldenberg
Photographs of Margaret Mead
|Margaret Mead, a life by Jane Howard|
o Catablog – a more detailed description of collections
o CLIO – for a catalog record of collection (enter <barnard college archives> in search box)
o For textual materials contact Marcia Bassett, College Archivist
o Archival Collections Portal – Columbia institutional records, personal papers of Barnard alumnae and administration, corporate archives, personal papers for those unaffiliated with Columbia, and many other types of materials.
o The Digital Collections – photographs, textual materials, artifacts, government documents, manuscripts, and other materials held by New York State Archives, New York State Museum & New York State Library
o American Memory – “digital record of American history and creativity” from the Library of Congress and other institutions
To cite a material from the Barnard College Archives, use the citation guide.
Your professor or the archival instituation may have a preferred way they would like you to cite primary sources.