How do we know what children are learning? What will stay with them throughout their lives? What counts? As part of the Barnard Center for Toddler Development’s 40th anniversary celebration, author and education activist Sam Chaltain explores the state of American education as it is, and as it ought to be, when it comes to assessing how and what children learn. Does standardized testing have a role? Can something as subjective as curiosity be measured objectively? And of all the things we could consider in our efforts to help young people grow, what must we value? Former national director of the Forum for Education & Democracy, Mr. Chaltain is also the author or co-author of six books, including American Schools: The Art of Creating a Democratic Learning Community.